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Uniformity trial

It is essentially an experiment without treatments.
The experimental units are measured but have not yet been subjected to any treatment.

In agriculture, a field may be divided into plots of equal dimensions and the yield may be assessed using the same variety of wheat.

In a drug study, subjects may be divided into groups according to physical characteristics such as weight and age.

Generally, by blocking we would like to reduce the variance of physical characteristics within groups, in comparison with the variance of all experimental units.